How do organizations strategically change practices and culture?
I am an Assistant Professor in the Strategic Management and Organization Department at the University of Alberta. I study the question, How do organizations strategically change practices and culture? Most of my research revolves around four inter-related concepts naturally associated with organizational efforts to change practices and/or culture: language, tools and technology, professional expertise, and organizational consciousness.
Theoretical topics of interest include:
I primarily use qualitative research methods. Recently, I have spent field time in the online display advertising and predictive analytics industries. I have also been conducting a longitudinal study of an entrepreneurial organization that is attempting to commercialize a new business model in the security industry.
MAKING ANALOGIES WORK: The Extension of Financial Market Concepts to Online Advertising
Vern Glaser, Peer Fiss, and Mark Kennedy
Prior work suggests analogies work best when an innovation aligns closely with a familiar domain, but analogies to financial markets have proven powerful in selling novel or potentially controversial business concepts—even when the new business is quite unlike a financial market. To address this puzzle we ask, how do organizations make a financial market analogy work? To develop a theoretical model of analogy work, we use a qualitative study of advertising exchanges, a market-inspired model for buying and selling online advertising space. We identify three types of analogy work: stretching, bending and positioning. As organizations stretch the exchange analogy from financial markets to online advertising, they also bend their activities to reflect key attributes of financial markets and position themselves for advantage in the new space being created. This dynamic view of analogy work extends theory by showing an analogy’s fit is not just a given property of the analogy: instead, innovators construct analogical fit by seeking to differentiate themselves as, not after, they establish the analogy.
DESIGNING ROUTINES: How Organizations Use Artifacts to Plan Patterns of Action
Although organizations frequently modify routines to pursue strategic objectives, limited research has explored how organizations design such modifications from a practice perspective. I explore this phenomenon by conducting an inductive, ethnographic study that investigates how a law enforcement agency uses an artifact to modify their patrolling routine. I show that organizational efforts to design routines involve two processes of patterning that facilitate the development of espoused action patterns that undergird a re-designed routine. In the first process, organizations articulate action patterns by abstracting from an exemplar performance of a routine and the inscription of an algorithmic artifact. In the second process, organizations engage in iterative patterning by using simulated performances of the routine to negotiate the jurisdiction of the artifact and dynamically evaluate the designed action pattern. By empirically studying the practices organizations use to design and modify routines, I generate a theoretical infrastructure that can be used to further develop an understanding of the antecedents of “live” routines and the formation of new organizational capabilities.
SHIFTING LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION: How Faceted Category Systems Influence Market Valuation Processes
Vern Glaser, Mariam Krikorian, and Peer Fiss
While prior work on the relationship between categories and valuation has focused on hierarchical category systems, modern product markets increasingly rely on faceted category systems that classify products according to multiple dimensions. In this paper, we suggest that a faceted perspective on categories leads to fundamentally different processes for valuing products. We investigate this issue with an inductive, qualitative study in the online advertising industry, an industry that relies heavily on a faceted category system. We find that market actors primarily use this faceted category system in two ways: at a high level of abstraction, they use broad, aggregated, averaged categories with few facets; at a low level of abstraction, they use granular, de-aggregated, de-averaged categories with numerous facets. We also find that valuation processes differ at high and low levels of categorical abstraction. At high levels, buyers rely on deductive theories of value and sellers construct custom solutions for buyers that reinforce and promote these theories; while at low levels, buyers and sellers conduct inductive experiments in which they clarify and realize value by adding or reducing categorical facets. Buyers and sellers further dynamically shift their levels of categorical abstraction to clarify value and optimize yield, respectively.
INSTITUTIONAL FRAME SWITCHING: How Institutional Logics Influence Individual Action
Vern Glaser, Nathanael Fast, Derek Harmon, and Sandy Green
Although scholars increasingly use institutional logics to explain macro-level phenomena, we still know little about the psychological mechanisms by which institutional logics shape individual action. In this paper, we address this limitation by developing theory to explain how schemas connect institutional logics and individual action. Specifically, we propose that individuals internalize institutional logics as an associative network of entity schemas (i.e., persons, objects, and places) and event schemas (i.e., stories, histories, and implicit theories). Within this framework, an implicit theory of action serves as a cognitive frame that shapes how individuals act in social situations. We hypothesize that exposure to cues associated with a particular logic increases the likelihood that individuals will adopt and use the implicit theory associated with that logic. We label this process “institutional frame switching,” and test our theory through two laboratory experiments. By clarifying how schemas connect institutional logics and individual action, we further develop the psychological underpinnings of the institutional logics perspective.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACTION: Reducing the Uncertainty of Innovation
Vern Glaser and Matthew Grimes
Entrepreneurs who promote innovations struggle to manage inherent uncertainties associated with the creation of novel products or services. Existing research theorizes that entrepreneurs as individuals manage these uncertainties through cognitive reasoning processes that attempt to organize the problem of uncertainty into sets of either given means or ends. Several recent studies, however, argue that this focus on cognitive reasoning fails to take into account the micro-foundations of entrepreneurial action and the distributed or interactive nature of that action. To address this theoretical gap, we ask the research question: how do entrepreneurial organizations promoting innovations manage uncertainty? We study this question through an inductive, 26-month ethnographic case study of Algo-Security, an entrepreneur promoting radical innovation in the security industry. We develop a theoretical model of managing uncertainty that highlights how organizations survey uncertainty and manage this uncertainty through iterative practices of surveying uncertainties, invoking sensemaking devices, and performing for audiences. Unlike prior literature that emphasizes cognitive reasoning styles of causation or effectuation, our study suggests that entrepreneurial organizations promoting innovations manage uncertainties through interactive and iterative organizational practices.
CRAFTING CONSISTENCY FROM COMPLEXITY: Tension-Smoothing Strategies in Everyday Interaction
Nina Eliasoph, Jade Lo, and Vern Glaser
Contemporary organizations reside in a pluralistic environment that features multiple and even competing institutional logics. Moreover, organizational members from different backgrounds often have different expectations and interpretations of even the same logic. How do organizational members manage the tensions and ambiguities that arise from such external and internal complexity in their everyday interaction? To answer this question, we conduct an ethnographic study of a set of hybrid organizations characterized by unusual institutional complexity: government- and nonprofit-sponsored volunteer organizations that aim to help disadvantaged youth. We observe organizational members dealing with two different types of institutional complexity: external complexity (arising from the presence of multiple, diverse audiences) and internal complexity (arising from the presence of diverse participants from highly divergent social backgrounds). To resolve the tensions that emerged from these complexities, organizational members mastered five tension-management strategies. Through these strategies, tensions are not resolved, but normalized.
LEARNING INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS
Vern Glaser, Jochem Kroezen, and Patricia Thornton
To advance understanding of the micro-foundations of institutional theory, we explore the differences in cognitive schemas learned by finance and nursing professionals as prototypical representatives of two institutional logics (the market-based logic of finance and the professions-based logic of nursing). Building on extensive research in social psychology, we argue that institutional logics influence how individuals make sense of their world by forming particular types of schemas that shape professional decision-making. We conduct an inductive, qualitative study of finance and nursing logics to identify central types of cognitive schemas learned by individuals during professional socialization. We find that professional training associated with an institutional logic results in individuals learning four types of cognitive schemas: (1) a pragmatic reasoning schema; (2) an implicit theory of attributes; (3) an implicit theory of agency; and (4) an implicit theory of morality. We build on these findings to articulate the consequences for professional decision-making. This paper contributes to our understanding of institutional logics by identifying schematic elements of the y-axis appropriate for micro-level theorizing about institutional logics.
CATEGORICAL EVOLUTION OR REVOLUTION? How Organizations Promote Emergent Categories
Hovig Tchalian, Vern Glaser, and Mark Kennedy
Current scholarship on categories has developed theory to explain the relationship between categorization and market valuation. This literature has traditionally relied on static conceptions of category definition based on cognitive psychology that fails to take into account the faceted nature of current product markets. We answer calls to go beyond studying mechanisms of legitimacy to pay closer attention to processes of emergence and particularly the dynamic promotion of emergent categories. We build theory about strategic category promotion by studying introductions in the Electric Vehicle (EV) product category. Incorporating the literature on faceted (or non-hierarchical) categorization schemes and dynamic categories, we use an inductive, process-based analytical approach to study the introduction of two vehicles, the GM Impact/EV1 and Tesla Roaster, and associated approaches to category promotion in the emerging EV category. We conduct an in-depth study of a corpus of organizational (sense-giving) and popular and expert (sense-making) texts, coding them for discursive markers and associative links across our two aggregate dimensions of temporal stance (attitude toward change and agency) and ontological orientation (specific category promotion mechanisms). We use our coding scheme to inductively build a theoretical framework for understanding dynamic approaches to the promotion of emerging categories. We find that category promotion relies on a configuration of promotional choices, including: correspondence with novel, faceted feature sets; positive alignment with new and emerging categories; straddling multiple categories; and what we call “casting,” emphasis on the full development of a product as an “exemplar” in a newly emergent category.
This course introduces the concepts, tools, and first principles of strategy formation and competitive analysis. It is concerned with managerial decisions and actions that materially affect the success and survival of business enterprises. The course focuses on the information, analyses, organizational processes, skills, and business judgment managers must use to design strategies, position their business and assets, and define firm boundaries. The goal: to learn how to maximize long-term profits or other strategic objectives in the face of uncertainty and competition.
ADVISING FAMILY BUSINESS
This course introduces the concepts, tools, and first principles of advising family businesses. It is concerned with how professional service advisors help family businesses make managerial decisions and actions that materially affect the success and survival of their business enterprises. The course focuses on the information, analyses, organizational processes, skills, and business judgments advisors to family businesses are expected to understand and apply.
EUROPEAN STUDY TOUR: Competitive Dynamics and Cultural Differences - Family Business and Entrepreneurship in European Governance Systems
This course stresses the important role of entrepreneurship and family business in different corporate governance systems throughout the world. The field trip focuses on Europe and examines Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands in particular. There are four objectives: (1) to become familiar with the diversity and relevance of family business and entrepreneurship in different governance systems, with focus on Europe; (2) to understand governance differences within Europe that impact family businesses and entrepreneurship; (3) to provide face-to-face interactions with key business executives and scholars regarding issues affecting entrepreneurship and family businesses in Europe; and (4) to understand European culture, the political and economic dynamics of that continent, and its role in the global economy.
Prior to entering academia, I gained experience in sales, customer service, operations management, business development, merger integration, and management consulting. In 2005, I founded Red Hill Consulting Group, Inc., a niche consulting firm which provided management consulting services for medium-sized businesses in a variety of industries. Products and services offered by Red Hill include the Red Hill Enterprise Strategic Insight System, Organizational Assessments and Restructurings, Process Improvement Initiatives, Strategic Planning, and Customized Financial Modeling. Additionally, I co-founded Red Hill Technology Solutions, a joint venture software company that utilizes dashboarding technology and mobile devices to provide real-time Business Intelligence solutions for the construction materials industry.
In addition to consulting experience, I have worked in the areas of finance, operations, sales, customer service, and maintenance. I have held positions including being the Controller for Southdown, Inc.'s concrete and aggregates group and the Production Manager for Cemex, Inc.'s Southern California ready-mixed concrete operations. Previously, I worked as a business analyst for ARCO Products Company's Los Angeles Refinery.
I am a graduate of the University of California at Los Angeles (BA, Economics), Duke University's Fuqua School of Business (MBA), and the University of Southern California (PhD). My wife and I currently live with our three boys in Edmonton, Alberta.